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Two and a Thousand Tiny Races in Sonya Lindfors’s Dance Performance ‘Noble Savage’

Taru Leppänen | Journal: General Issue [10] | Issues | Jan 2019

In Finland, professional dancers have been almost exclusively white. Because of this, Sonya Lindfors’s Noble Savage (2016), which is themed around blackness, racialization and othering, is a notable piece of work in the Finnish contemporary dance scene. All the performers of this work are Afro-Finnish artists: choreographer and dancer Sonya Lindfors, actor and rap artist Deogracies Masomi, actor Amira Khalifa and dancers Ima Iduozee, Esete Sutinen and Julian Owusu. Noble Savage was performed twelve times at Zodiak, a Center for New Dance in Helsinki, Finland. Lindfors describes the work as follows:

We are six black performers. When we enter Zodiak’s stage, we enter at the same time the white canon of contemporary dance. We dance with white ghosts. Noble Savage concretely stops the historical flow.[1]

Although dancing is usually considered to be a visual and kinetic form of art, it also often entails auditory elements such as sounds and music. In Noble Savage, race and racialization are not only visual phenomena: they, too, appear in sound and music. The sound designer was Jussi Matikainen, whom I interviewed after the performances: he and light designer Erno Aaltonen were the only white artists of the production team, and they also appear onstage a few times during the performance. Performance Studies scholar Marcus Emil McQuirter claims that despite “the apparent hegemony of vision in racial categorization, historically vocality has borne the brunt of as much racial presumption as physical appearance.”[2] Sound Studies scholar Jennifer Lynn Stoever also problematizes the assumption that race is only ever visually apprehended by proposing that “listening operates as an organ of racial discernment, categorization, and resistance in the shadow of vision’s alleged cultural dominance. While vision remains a powerfully defining element of race, scholars have yet to account for how other senses experience racialization and enact race feeling, both alone and in concert with sight.”[3]

My aim in this article is to examine race in connection to sound and music in Noble Savage.  [4]The word “race” is often put in inverted commas in order to stress the constructed nature of race or to indicate that “there is no such thing as race,”[5] in the sense that racism is regarded as an ideological construction, rather than a material fact. Because race is an ideology and set of historical practices, attempts to understand it as a social concept, rather than an ontological phenomenon, are justified. However, many scholars have recently paid attention to the materiality of race by arguing that the constructivist or “nominal” approach leaves out the material dimensions of this phenomenon.[6] These approaches underline race as a relational phenomenon, and they enable us to go beyond the binary distinction between the material and the cultural by showing that race is a relational phenomenon.[7]

I examine race in Noble Savage in relation to music and sound while drawing theoretically on feminist new materialisms as well as on feminisms inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari’s thinking. I hear, look at and sense race as discursive–material processes, where race is made and remade not only by exclusions and erasures but also by its ongoing connections.[8] My analysis focuses for the most part on sound and music, but these phenomena are always interlocked with other events and processes such as visual appearances, images and kinetic elements. According to Noble Savage’s web page, this performance “analyses the processes of otherness by creating a black stage where the ‘other’ is white.”[9] In light of this description, the categories of white and black are focal in the racialized processes of othering. Besides taking into account the molar categories of black and white I aspire also to deconstruct this rigid and hegemonic binary. Instead of treating these molar identities solely as distinct and already-recognized categories, I allow the the concept of becoming to transform racialized subjectivities from known entities and being into dynamic relational actualization. According to Deleuze and Guattari, becomings are always minoritarian in the sense that they are always departures from the majority or the standard.A becoming is opening up towards the other; it is always a matter of becoming something other than what is offered by the dominant conceptual categories of a given society; it is a movement away from the given toward that which a society refuses, or is as yet unable, to recognize.[10] Thus, becomings in Noble Savage entail moving away from identity categories such as black and white. Moreover, they entail fresh conceptualizations of race and novel assemblages that include races, events, sound, music and other kinds of materialities. Because becoming always happens in unforeseen ways, it is impossible to know or define categorically what blackness and whiteness are. The concept of becoming transforms racialized subjectivities from known entities into dynamic and relational actualizations.

However, it is crucial to note that although dynamic racial becomings might be possible, we live in a world where race is a pre-eminent ideological force powerfully defining everything from nation states to individual lives. Because of this, approaching race as a material phenomenon should not mean considering racialized discursive formations and molar structures such as racialized identity categories of black and white irrelevant.

Recentralizing and Middling

Lindfors characterizes Noble Savage, and her other works connected to it, with the concept of recentralizing:

Me and other racialized artists position ourselves, our bodies and experiences in the center. We try to challenge to position that is assigned for us. We want to dismiss the marginal position. … This work is not created from a white position or intended for a white gaze. It tries instead to make whiteness visible. It is possible to deconstruct the hegemony of whiteness only by becoming aware of its existence.[11]

Black and white are not the only racialized categories in Noble Savage. Black bodies become recentralized in this performance in connection to various other racialized identities. The dramaturgical frame of this performance is the story of Pocahontas, a young Native American princess who is kidnapped and taken to Europe. In Noble Savage, all the performers, one after another, take the role of Pocahontas. When Pocahontas enters the stage for the first time, all the performers state one at a time: “I am Pocahontas.” Noble Savage is situated in various cultural positions also because four languages – Finnish, English, Lingala, Twi – are spoken during the performance. These strategies put the racialized categories of black and white into processes of becoming because the characters of Noble Savage are entangled and multiple, and cannot be contained to a single racialized feature or category. Moreover, Noble Savage does not present a coherent narrative; it consists of various kinds of dance and music styles and genres.

Hufvudstadsbladet, the highest circulating Swedish-language newspaper in Finland, published a review of Noble Savage by music and dance critic Tove Djupsjöbacka.[12] In this review, Djupsjöbacka praised the performance, although she mentioned that it would have been beneficial to densify the piece dramaturgically. Sonya Lindfors wrote a reply to this review in the blog “Ruskeat tytöt” (“Brown Girls”).[13] She declared that she found it problematic that a white critic writes a review of a piece that deals with othering representations of race and addressed the white reviewer by stating: “This work was not made for you.” As a white scholar, I understand and accept that this piece was not made for me either. However, I put my confidence in Lindfors’s statement that each spectator of Noble Savage is significant and welcome. For her, the focal point of the work is that the white spectator acknowledge that this piece is “from us to us.”[14]

I address Lindfors’s idea of deconstructing the hegemony of whiteness and the relations of identities it implies by examining racial multiplicity in Noble Savage with the concept of middling as my methodological premise.[15] Middling is derived from the verb “to middle”: it invites us to go to the middle and to happen in the middle. This concept enables us to perceive events, happenings and processes without categorizing them into normative, predetermined and recognizable entities or identity categories, such as racialized categories of black and white. Middling aims to give space to and focus on the events and processes that dynamically happen in between – and shape – beings, phenomena and materialities. While working with the concept of middling, I do not begin with (human) individuals. Instead, I examine processes of individualization that “re-arise from their mutual relations”[16] in the middle of raciality, human and non-human agents, music, sound and other kind of materialities.

Middling both differs from and enhances intersectional approaches in feminist research. Whereas intersectionality focuses on human agency in the intersections of differences, middling pays attention to re-forming and processuality of things, phenomena, bodies and materialities in the singular relations between them. These intentions resemble Jasbir Puar’s suggestion of moving from intersectionality to the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of “assemblage.”[17] According to Puar:

As opposed to an intersectional model of identity, which presumes that components – race, gender, sexuality, nation, age, religion – are separable analytics and can thus be disassembled, an assemblage is more attuned to interwoven forces that merge and dissipate time, space, and body against linearity, coherency, and permanency.[18]

The concept of middling directs me to begin my analysis of the entanglements of race, music and sound in Noble Savage from the middle, and to pay attention to both recognizable identity politics and becomings in this piece. While intersectional approaches are tightly connected to (human) identity politics, becoming transforms pre-known and named identities into unpredictable and singular processes.

Noble Savage consists of four parts. In the first part, the black performers, the black stage and white western classical music form an encounter. In the second part, the stage and the performers become white; the floor and the ceiling are changed into white materials, the performers wear white clothes, and their faces are painted white. The third part, in which the characters of Pocahontas and John Smith attend couples therapy, mixes characteristics of read-through, situation comedy and panel discussion. The fourth part is a stagnant moment: the performers adopt frozen poses for the whole part. In what follows, I analyze sound and music in three moments of Noble Savage: first a dance in the first part of the piece, which is accompanied by Henry Purcell’s music. Secondly, Kendrick Lamar’s piece, “Bitch Don’t Kill My Vibe,” performed by Aaltonen and Matikainen in the second part of the performance, and thirdly a static chord that lasts eight minutes at the end of the piece.

The Indian Queen and the Whiteness of Western Classical Music

In the middle of the first part of Noble Savage there is a classical ballet dance sequence, which is accompanied by a music excerpt from The Indian Queen (1695), a semi-opera by Henry Purcell, an English Baroque composer. This music is played on stringed instruments, its tempo is fairly slow and the atmosphere is quite elevated. The opera is set in Peru and Mexico before European invasion. The plot deals with conflicts between the Mexican and Peruvian royal families. Even if the original plot of the opera takes place before European colonization of the Americas, the libretto has been interpreted and adapted later in relation to European colonialism, as in Peter Sellers’s version of The Indian Queen in 2013 at the Teatro Real in Madrid. Noble Savage deals with the themes of colonialism in connection to The Indian Queen by bringing it together with the story of Pocahontas and black dancing bodies.

Matikainen told me in the interview that he and Aaltonen had wanted to create sound and lighting in the first part of Noble Savage that would act as counterpoints to the events onstage. Black bodies, black walls, black floor and white western classical music encounter each other in this part. Music embodies the white structure, and blackness is presented in a contrapuntal relationship to the white soundscape. Music makes the structures of whiteness – and also blackness – visible and audible.

The categories of black and white function at the level of macropolitics; but, following Moira Gatens, I argue that we must also attend to the micropolitical, particularly in relation to the affective power of a performance such as this one. As Gatens insists, we “need to engage with the … norms of our culture on two fronts: the macropolitical and the micropolitical.”[19] In Deleuze and Guattari’s thinking, the “molecular” relates to becoming while the “molar” relates to being. Molar entities and politics work at the level of macrostructures and binaries and include identities such as black and white, women and men, and human and non-human, whereas a molecular micropolitics “takes place outside or beyond the fixity of subjectivity and the structure of stable unities.”[20] Molar and molecular cannot be characterized as good or bad and they are not opposites. Micropolitics calls for molecular becomings that leak out of the molar identity categories.

Racialized categories, whiteness and blackness, are in the processes of becoming in this part of Noble Savage. As it is often noted, whiteness does not commonly present itself as a racial category.[21] Whiteness remains frequently, especially for whites, invisible, and also inaudible.[22] The status of whiteness as a norm of humanity is based on its taken-for-grantedness, invisibility and inaudibleness. In Noble Savage’s first part, Purcell’s music racializes whiteness when it is put into contrapuntal position vis-à-vis the dancing black bodies. However, the black dancers comply with Purcell’s music, as they move in accordance with white norms[23] of classical western ballet. The contrapuntal relationship is made up of music and black bodies and not of music and the movements of the dancing bodies.

In the Deleuzo-Guattarian processes of becoming, becoming-woman is a privileged mode of becoming. Nevertheless, in their thinking women must also become-woman, if a change in the prevailing conceptions of woman and conceptualizations of gender in our culture are pursued. As Verena Andermatt Conley has stated, “becoming-woman entails a continuous turning away from one’s present conditions, an ongoing actualization of virtualities.”[24] Likewise whiteness also has to become visible; hence, white people must become white in order to detect their privileged position, for example, in the field of contemporary dance. According to Deleuze and Guattari, becomings are always minoritarian in the sense that they are always departures from the majority, norm, or the standard. Thus, the processes of becoming do not include becomings that move toward the privileged categories of man, whiteness or abledness. Nonetheless, some scholars have considered the concept of becoming white as beneficial for antiracist politics.[25] In order for dismantling racist practices the concept of becoming white should entail such processes where whiteness is disconnected from its privileged position and where it does not pursue appropriation or subordination.[26]

Matikainen explained that as a white man, he wanted to be involved in actualizing the black performers’ aims in this performance. To address the word “noble” in the title of this piece, he decided to use western classical music in the first part of the performance. The title Noble Savage refers to a figure that originates from the seventeenth century, an idealized character who has not been corrupted by European civilization. Matikainen chose western classical music for the first part of Noble Savage to emphasize that the black bodies are not timid in this space. Instead, they appropriate possibly the whitest music genre, western classical music, and use it for their own purposes. According to Matikainen, the production team conceptualized these processes as reverse appropriation: the black bodies appropriated the white canon of western art music. Reverse or counter-appropriation refers to processes where the colonized and racialized others of European culture adopt and use elements of western culture.[27] According to Matikainen, the dancing bodies in connection to Purcell’s music appear as grand, numinous and autonomic. The clothing of the dancers in this part intentionally show them, visually, as “primitive”; some of them wear tribal clothing, and much of their bare skin is exposed. The use of Purcell’s music enables the audience to experience “primitiveness” in fresh, novel and empowering ways in comparison to colonial and racist conceptualizations. Black bodies and skins are exposed as they dance to audibly white music and use a white repertoire of movement. They are in the process of becoming because they connect to forces that are encoded as black. Race proliferates in this part of Noble Savage, but it is not restricted to human bodies: many kinds of racial assemblages emerge in the relation between clothing, human bodies, skin color, movement and Purcell’s music.

Impossible Authenticity

In the second part of Noble Savage, the color white predominates. The stage, its floor and ceiling are white, and also the performers are dressed in white clothes and their faces are painted with white face paint. In the middle of this part Aaltonen and Matikainen appear onstage to play an acoustic rendition of American hip hop artist Kendrick Lamar’s song “Bitch Don’t Kill My Vibe.” Before the performance of this piece, Pocahontas dies. When Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s performance begins, Pocahontas gradually comes to life, turns to look at the performers and finally holds up a cigarette lighter to show appreciation for them.

In the beginning and middle of the piece Aaltonen and Matikainen speak to the audience in Finnish (translated by TL):

JM: Hi all, I’m Jussi. We have practised this piece that we’d like to play for you. You are allowed to support us. It is an intimate piece. You can also sing with us if you wish.

[music]

EA: You know what, Jussi, yesterday I was walking home from the rehearsals and passed my old hangout bar. It was called “Wonder” and it was located in Hämeentie. The owner was a Jamaican guy and the atmosphere was always super authentic. A while ago a sparkling wine bar was opened in the same place. I wonder what is happening to this city. Anyway, I wanted to tell you with this story that we live in this moment because all authenticity is evanescent.

Matikainen explained that the artists and production team of Noble Savage wanted to draw attention to the problems of appropriation, especially to highlight how creative professionals often use appropriation to further their own intentions. Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s performance of “Bitch Don’t Kill My Vibe” does not feature characteristic elements of hip hop music such as rapping, sampling techniques, or instrumental or synthesized beats. Their performance resembles an acoustic ballad or a pop song more than hip hop. Moreover, their bodily comportment departs from characteristic hip hop dance and performance styles, because Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s bodies are quite motionless during the whole performance.

Hip hop is a mode of cultural expression that initially challenged capitalism, racism and white supremacy. It was formed by young African-Americans’ and Hispanics’ need to produce their own music to become audible in society. Gradually, when hip hop gained popularity, white artists started to make this music and hip hop culture became more commercialized. The processes of appropriation of hip hop culture are problematic, because the perspective changes from minorities to the white majority.[28] This shift happens also in Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s performance of “Bitch Don’t Kill My Vibe”; the piece which is originally performed by a black artist does not in Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s performance entail the viewpoint of racialized minorities. Instead, it focuses on the problems of white musicians, such as the disappearance of “the super authentic feeling” in Helsinki, gentrification, and vexation caused by these processes. The insistence on authenticity is reduced to white musicians’ desire to consume “exotic” cultures in their leisure time.

In addition to the themes of appropriation and authenticity, Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s performance of “Bitch Don’t Kill My Vibe” deals with white fragility. The concept of white fragility describes “a state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress becomes intolerable [for whites], triggering a range of defensive moves.”[29] These kinds of situations often trigger a range of defensive reactions and strong emotions. In Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s performance the concept of “authenticity” is connected only to non-whiteness, and the ending of the Jamaican bar leads Aaltonen to confect a grandiose metaphor for what is happening to Helsinki.

It is important to note that in this part of Noble Savage, although the white performers’ faces are also painted with white face paint and they are dressed fully in white clothes, it is not possible to be certain about their whiteness. The Deleuzian notion of becoming “orients us to an ontology not of what is or what should be, but to an ontology of becoming – such becoming understood … as an escape from rigid dualisms,”[30] such as the racialized categories of white and black. When discussing gender, Deleuze and Guattari note that “the two sexes imply a multiplicity of molecular combinations bringing into play not only the man in the woman and the woman in the man, but the relation of each other to the animal, the plant, etc.: a thousand tiny sexes.”[31] Thus, the binary conceptualization of gender already implies molecular becomings, which make gender a multiplicity. The idea of a thousand tiny sexes has been applied by some scholars to race, with the concept of a thousand tiny races.[32] The racialized categories of black and white multiply in Noble Savage when music, clothes, sounds, various cultures, staging, face paint and bodies connect to each other. In these processes, besides molar categories of black and white, a thousand tiny races evolve.

Molar categories and molecular becomings entangle in the performance of “Bitch Don’t Kill My Vibe.” On the one hand, Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s performance entails molar categories – the elements of black music, white bodies and white talk encounter each other in the audio-visual elements of this event. On the other, the emphasis on the white musicians’ whiteness brings about molecular becomings in addition to molar categorizations – the “authenticity” of the white bodies’ whiteness is blurred and racial categories become unreliable and unrecognizable. Indeed, I would suggest that to make problems of appropriation explicit and visible entails also processes of becoming. The clearly white performance of a black hip hop artist’s piece generates sounds that materialize both black and white corporealities, their histories and the political issues of the present.

When white fragility and the processes of appropriation are highlighted in connection to white clothes and painted faces, whiteness becomes uncertain and perhaps also unnatural, because as a visual fact it is not only a property of Aaltonen’s and Matikainen’s bodies. Becoming white presupposes that it emerges in visible and audible processes instead of being invisible and inaudible. Because of these processes, whiteness becomes visible and audible and proliferates in this part of Noble Savage as many tiny races.

Utopia

In the last part of Noble Savage, the black bodies stand, lie and sit on the stage and do nothing. This static part lasts eight minutes and its purpose, according to Matikainen, is to invite the audience to reflect on what they just experienced, saw and heard. The performers and the production team of Noble Savage termed this part “utopia” during the rehearsal process. In this utopia, reality is transformed to make way for an imagined future that reaches out beyond the performance. In the utopia part, the black bodies take possession of the stage and do nothing. They refuse to entertain and to integrate into the white canon of western dance. The music of this part is a remarkably slowly transmuting static and spectral chord, whose lowest and highest notes melt little by little into each other and eventually fade out. It is not possible to categorize this music; one cannot locate it in any known music genre or style. In this static part of Noble Savage, race is no longer recognizable as a coherent social category because it is reduced to colors on the surface of black bodies. The coherence of race as a molar category is broken down and molecularized.

In its last part Noble Savage produces a move away from the performers toward the audience and calls the audience upon to the imaginative work. In this part, race is concurrently molar and molecular. The static stage scene and extremely slowly changing sounds create a space where race is at the same time recognizable and non-recognizable, beyond the already-known features of racialization. The utopia part allows the audience to reflect upon the performance they have just experienced and to reach out to new, unimagined realities by setting down the molar racialized categories for a moment.

According to Matikainen, the artists and the production team considered the last part of Noble Savage to be important because it provides an opportunity for the performance to extend itself beyond the performance space to have an impact on lived reality, as the audience members become aware of themselves as participants in processes of racialization in everyday life. Matikainen explained that the customary characteristics of a performance were faded out in the last part; representation and scenic features are not present in the same way as in the previous parts of Noble Savage. This artistic decision to eject traditional theatrical forms of representation has a particular resonance with the theoretical approaches of feminist new materialisms, in which representation itself is a pressing problem: feminist new materialist scholars actively resist reducing material phenomena and entities to formalist principles in serving as the foundation of rigid and inescapable formal structures – where the only function of matter is to wait to be represented.[33]

As the representational layer in Noble Savage’s last part vanishes, race, too, contracts, shrinking into colors on the surfaces of skins. Even though the audience is made aware of the molar categories of race, the utopia part allows for the examination of race in fresh and novel ways that do not inevitably return to these classifications. When representational acts of signification are reduced to a minimum, very few residual categories and signifiers of race remain. As an apparatus of sense-making, representation captures molar categories, but molecular becomings exceed cognitive coding processes. I do not mean to say that race simply disappears from the scene. But in this part of Noble Savage, race becomes imperceptible because the representational modes of expressing race are loosened. Considering race as a molecular becoming enables the proliferation of race into a thousand tiny races.

Entanglements between Macro- and Micropolitics

Micropolitics challenges the binary machines that organize raciality in terms of black and white. As Rosi Braidotti has stated, “[r]ethinking the positivity of race means delinking the practice of racialization from its dialectical dependence on dualistic thinking.”[34] A thousand tiny races emerge as micropolitical processes where race would become, in Deleuzo-Guattarian terms, imperceptible. However, in Deleuze and Guattari’s vocabulary, the notion of the imperceptible does not presume that racialized sounds, music, movements or other kinds of expressions would stay unnoticed. For them, “becoming imperceptible” simply relates to the kinds of processes and practices that escape the normative, predetermined and recognizable identities and forms. Furthermore, effective anti-racist politics entails analyzing also macropolitical structures in addition to micropolitical becomings.

Noble Savage is a work with both macropolitical and micropolitical dimensions. It actualizes macropolitical themes by bringing six black performers onto the dance stage of a contemporary piece. Race emerges as micropolitical becomings when it proliferates into a thousand tiny races in the middle of human and non-human materialities and discourses. Feminist new materialisms enable us to examine molar identity categories not only in terms of being but also in relation to becoming. When race is reconfigured beyond representations and coherent constructions, a politics of identity entangles with a politics of becoming. This process entails an expanded understanding of intra-actions between power and the processes of racialization.

As distinct entities, the (white) Classical music and (black) bodies in Noble Savage materialize molar categories. When these entities are analyzed through the concept of middling, they enter into relation with each other and with other perceptual entities. Black bodies, their movements, music and sound are not distinct in this performance; racialized features of bodies, music and sound bring about new kinds of racial entanglements. In introducing these new kinds of racialized assemblages to Finnish contemporary dance, Noble Savage deconstructs the white performance space. When racialized identities and micropolitical becomings become visible and create assemblages, two and a thousand races emerge. Noticing both material becomings and molar structures, affirming existing struggles and forming novel and fresh articulations are needed in effective anti-racist politics.

Notes

Notes

1. Veera Järvenpää, ”Tanssi hegemonian haudalla,” Voima 3 (2016), http://uusi.voima.fi/artikkeli/2016/tanssi-hegemonian-haudalla/ (January 2017), translated from Finnish by TL. [↑]

2. Marcus Emil McQuirter, Hearing Voices in the Dark: Deploying Black Sonicity as a Strategy in Dramatic Performance, unpublished doctoral thesis, (Austin: University of Texas, 2012), vii, https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/ETD-UT-2012-05-5847 (January 2017). [↑]

3. Jennifer Lynn Stoever, The Sonic Color Line: Race & The Cultural Politics of Listening, (New York: New York University Press), 4. [↑]

4. I discuss the processes of racialization in connection to sound and music in Sonya Lindfors’s Noble Savage also in an article published in Finnish, Taru Leppänen, “Tuhansia pieniä rotuja Sonya Lindforsin Noble Savagessa,” Kulttuurintutkimus 2–3 (2017), 17–26. [↑]

5. Anoop Nayak, “After race: Ethnography, race and post-race theory,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 29.3 (2006), 4, italics in original. [↑]

6. E. g. Camilla Eline Andersen, Mot en mindre profesjonalitet. «Rase», tidlig barndom og Deleuzeoguattariske blivelser, (Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, 2015) http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:795293/FULLTEXT01.pdf 2015 (September 2018); Mel Y. Chen, Animacies: Biopolitics, Racial Mattering, and Queer Affects, (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2012); Hinton, Peta, Mehrabi, Tara & Barla, Josef (2015). New materialisms/New colonialisms, Position Papers: New Materialism on the Crossroads of the Natural and Human Sciences (COST Action IS1307, 2015) https://www.scribd.com/document/356572608/New-Materialisms-New-Colonialisms, (September 2018); Leppänen, “Tuhansia pieniä rotuja Sonya Lindforsin Noble Savagessa,”; Taru Leppänen, “Race”, New Materialism Almanac, http://newmaterialism.eu/almanac/r/race (COST Action IS1307, 2018) (September 2018); Xin Liu, Trilling Race: The Political Economy of Racialised Visual-Aural Encounters, (Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2015), http://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/113036/liu_xin.pdf?sequence=2 (January 2017); Amade M’charek, “Fragile differences, relational effects: Stories about the materiality of race and sex,” European Journal of Women’s Studies 17.4 (2010): 307–322; Amade M’charek, “Beyond Fact or Fiction: On the Materiality of Race in Practice,” Cultural Anthropology 28.3 (2013): 420–442; Dimitris Papadopoulos and Sanjay Sharma, “Editorial: Race/Matter – materialisms and the politics of racialization,” darkmatter: in the ruins of imperial culture 2 (2008),  http://www.darkmatter101.org/site/2008/02/23/racematter-materialism-and-the-politics-of-racialization/; Arun Saldanha, Psychedelic White: Goa Trance and the Viscosity of Race, (Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2007); Arun Saldanha, “White ravers in a Goan village: race as machinic assemblage,” darkmatter: in the ruins of imperial culture 2 (2008),  http://www.darkmatter101.org/site/2008/02/23/white-ravers-in-a-goan-village-race-as-machinic-assemblage/; Arun Saldanha, “Assemblage, materiality, race, capital,” Dialogues in Human Geography 2.2 (2012): 194–197; Arun Saldanha, “Bastard and mixed-blood are the true names of race: an introduction,” in Deleuze and race, ed. Arun Saldanha and Jason Michael Adams (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013), 6–34; Rachel Slocum, “Thinking race through corporeal feminist theory: divisions and intimacies at the Minneapolis Farmer’s Market,” Social and Cultural Geography 9.8 (2008): 849–869; Rachel Slocum, “Race in the study of food,” Progress in Human Geography 35.3 (2011), 303–327; Niina Vuolajärvi, ”Rodun todellisuus ja materiaalisuus,” Naistutkimus–Kvinnoforskning 2 (2011): 54–60; Niina Vuolajärvi, ”Rotu etnisten suhteiden tutkimuksessa,” in Muokattu elämä, ed. Sari Irni, Mianna Meskus and Venla Oikkonen (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2014), 264–301. [↑]

7. Amade M’charek, “Beyond Fact or Fiction: On the Materiality of Race in Practice,” Cultural Anthropology 28.3 (2013), 420. [↑]

8. Arun Saldanha, “Re-ontologising race: the machinic geography of phenotype,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 24 (2006): 9–24. [↑]

9. Sonya Lindfors, “Noble Savage,” http://www.zodiak.fi/en/calendar/noble-savage Zodiac (May2017) [↑]

10. Todd May, “The Ontology and Politics of Gilles Deleuze,” Theory and Event 5.3,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/tae.2001.0017 (June 2017) [↑]

11. Sonya Lindfors, ”Toiseus 101. Näkökulmia toiseuteen,” http://urbanapa.fi/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/TOISEUS-101-n%C3%A4k%C3%B6kulmia-toiseuteen.pdf (January 2017); Sonya Lindfors, ”Vieraskynä: Musta näyttämö, valkoinen katse. Vastine Tove Djupsjöbackan kritiikkiin Huvudstadsbladetissa 21.4.2016,” Ruskeat tytöt  22.4.2016, http://www.lily.fi/blogit/ruskeat-tytot/vieraskyna-musta-nayttamo-valkoinen-katse (January 2017). Citation is translated from Finnish by TL. [↑]

12. Tove Djupsjöbacka, ”Rappt och modigt om kolonialism,” Hufvudstadsbladet 21.4.2016, https://www.hbl.fi/artikel/rappt-och-modigt-om-kolonialism/ (January 2017). [↑]

13. Lindfors, ”Vieraskynä.” [↑]

14. Lindfors, ”Vieraskynä.” [↑]

15. Erin Manning and Brian Massumi, Brian, Thought in the Act: Passages in the Ecology of Experience (Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 5; Taru Leppänen and Milla Tiainen, ”Feministisiä uusmaterialismeja paikantamassa. Materian toimijuus etnografisessa taiteen- ja kulttuurintutkimuksessa,” Sukupuolentutkimus–Genusforskning 3 (2016); Milla Tiainen, Katve-Kaisa Kontturi and Ilona Hongisto, “Framing, Following, Middling: Towards Methodologies of Relational Materialities,” Cultural Studies Review 21.2 (2015), 14–46. [↑]

16. Tiainen, Hongisto and Kontturi, “Framing, Following, Middling: Towards Methodologies of Relational Materialities,” 15. [↑]

17. Jasbir Puar, Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times, (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2007), 211. [↑]

18. Puar, 212. [↑]

19. Moira Gatens, “Feminism as ‘Password’: Re-thinking the ‘Possible’ with Spinoza and Deleuze,” Hypatia 15.2 (2000), 68. [↑]

20. Elena del Río, Deleuze and the Cinemas of Performance: Powers of Affection, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008), 115. [↑]

21. See e.g. Richard Dyer, White, (New York and London: Routledge, 1997); Ruth Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness, (London & Minneapolis: Routledge, 1993). [↑]

22. Julia Eklund Koza, “Listening for Whiteness: Hearing Racial Politics in Undergraduate School Music,” Philosophy of Music Education Review 16.2 (2008): 145–155; Jennifer Lynn Stoever, The Sonic Color Line. Race & The Cultural Politics of Listening, (New York: New York University Press, 2016), 12. [↑]

23. Jennifer Fisher, “Ballet and Whiteness: Will Ballet Forever Be the Kingdom of the Pale?” in The Oxford Handbook of Dance and Ethnicity, ed. Anthony Shay and Barbara Sellers-Young (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press), 585–597. [↑]

24. Verena Andermatt Conley, “Becoming-Woman Now,” in Deleuze and Feminist Theory, eds. Ian Buchanan and Claire Colebrook (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000), 35. [↑]

25. Jeffrey T. Nealon, Alterity Politics: Ethics and Performative Subjectivity. (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1998), 122; Sanjay Sharma, Multicultural Encounters, (Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire & New York, 2006), 46–47. [↑]

26.  Sharma, Multicultural Encounters, 47. [↑]

27. See Laura Wendy Belcher, “Consuming Subjects: Theorizing New Models of Agency for Literary Criticism in African Studies,” Comparative Literature Studies 46.2 (2009), 218. [↑]

28. See Jannis Androutsopoulos and Arno Scholz, “Spaghetti Funk: Appropriations of Hip-Hop Culture and Rap Music in Europe,” Popular Music and Society 26.4 (2003), 463–479. [↑]

29. Robin DiAngelo, “White Fragility,” The International Journal of Critical Pedagogy 3 (2011), 57. [↑]

30. Hans Skott-Myhre and Donato Tarulli, ”Becoming-child: Ontology, immanence, and the production of child and youth rights,” in Child rights: theory and practice, ed. Tom Oneill and Dawn Zinga, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008), 76. [↑]

31. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translation and foreword by Brian Massumi, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 213. [↑]

32. Dolphijn & van der Tuin 2013, 137; Puar 2007, 209; Saldanha 2006 & 2015 [↑]

33. Milla Tiainen, “Corporeal Voices, Sexual Differentiations: New Materialist Perspectives on Music, Singing and Subjectivity,” Thamyris/Intersecting 18 (2007), 150. [↑]

34. Rosi Braidotti, Transpositions: On Nomadic Ethics, (Cambridge and Malden: Polity Press, 2006), 64. [↑]


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